One hundred and eight Titan-II ICBM (B-Types) were produced. The airframe is a two-stage, aerodynamically stable structure that houses and protects the airborne missile equipment during powered flight. Missiles N-19 on 13 May (VAFB) and N-17 on 24 May (CCAS) were successful, but of 18 Titan II launches so far, only 10 had met all of their objectives. A systematic effort to improve the quality control of the LR-87 engines was launched, which included extensive redesigns of components to improve reliability as well as fixes to the gas generator restriction issue.[19][18]. The rocket was derived from the Titan II ICBM. The second launch, Missile N-1, lifted from LC-15 on 7 June. N-10 AF Ser. This is a short documentary covering the construction phase of the Titan II complexes built in the early 60's. The Titan 23G ended up being less of a cost-saving measure than anticipated as the expense of refurbishing the missiles for space launches turned out to be more than the cost of flying a brand-new Delta booster. Another airman, A1C Erby Hepstall, later died from lung injuries sustained in the spill.[28][29][30][31]. The missile consists of a two-stage, rocket engine powered vehicle and a re-entry vehicle (RV). [20], On 9 August 1965, a fire and resultant loss of oxygen when a high-pressure hydraulic line was cut with an oxyacetylene torch in a missile silo (Site 373–4) near Searcy, Arkansas, killed 53 people, mostly civilian repairmen doing maintenance. On the other hand, the exact reason for pogo was still unclear and a vexing problem for NASA. Each stage is 10 feet (3.0 m) in diameter and has fuel and oxidizer tanks in tandem, with the walls of the tanks forming the skin of the missile in those areas. Blue Gemini). The keys had to be turned within two seconds of each other, and had to be held for five seconds. The next flight was Missile N-22, a silo test from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 June, but once again the second stage lost thrust due to a gas generator restriction. The deadliest of these occurred on August 9, 1965 in Searcy, Arkansas when welding fuel ignited during a silo upgrade program. I tried to have the characteristics be as accurate as possible, for example the weight of the rocket is exactly 154.000 kg like the real life counterpart Don't forget to upvote if you liked it. Because of the volatility of the liquid fuel and the problem with aging seals, the Titan II missiles had originally been scheduled to be retired beginning in 1971. It is able to lift approximately 1,900 kg (4,200 lb) into a circular polar low-Earth orbit. An umbilical cord failed to separate cleanly, ripping out wiring in the second stage which not only cut power to the guidance system, but also prevented the range safety charges from being armed. On 29 January, the Air Force Ballistic Systems Division (BSD) declared that pogo in the Titan had been reduced enough for inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) use and that no further improvements needed to be made. It would carry a larger warhead over a greater range with more accuracy and could be fired more quickly. While adding more pressure to the propellant tanks had reduced vibration, it could only be done so much before putting unsafe structural loads on the Titan and in any case the results were still unsatisfactory from NASA's point of view. • Former space engineer and rocket scientist James Oberg said the Gemini 4 was the only one of 10 manned flights in which a rendezvous was attempted (and nearly accomplished) with a beer can-shaped target (ie: the upper stage of the Titan II rocket that had been floating in space for 50 hours). They were stored under plastic coverings and had helium pumped into their engine components to prevent rust. Titan II(23)G launching Clementine Moo… The surviving N-10, AF Ser. The actual launch vehicle was the Titan II, a modified Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) that had been modified to carry men into space. Impact occurred 1,500 miles (2,400 km) downrange, half the planned distance. It was solved by adding extra lanyards to the umbilicals so they would have sufficient "play" in them to separate without damaging the missile. The order given to launch a Titan II was vested exclusively in the US President. NASA chose this powerful booster to propel the Gemini spacecraft into orbit and my town was, for a little while, one of the key locations in the Space Race of the 1960s. Once unlocked, the missile was ready to launch. The missile had a diameter of 3.05 m, a length of 31.30 m and a launch weight of 149,700 kg. Titan II ICBM Web Page This site visited times since May 27th, 2011. The Titan II on display is the last variant of the Titan II family, the Space Launch Vehicle (SLV). No 66-4315 at the Spaceport USA Rocket Garden, B-108 AF Ser. 62-12560 top half of Stage 1 was recovered offshore following its launch and is on display at the Alabama Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. [27], On 23 June 1975, one of two engines failed to ignite on a Titan II launch from Silo 395C at Vandenberg AFB in California. [21][22][23][24][25] The fire occurred while the 750-ton silo lid was closed, which contributed to a reduced oxygen level for the men who survived the initial fire. Those payloads included the USAF Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), NOAA weather satellites, and NASA's Gemini crewed space capsules. The missiles had a two-stage liquid propellant design and reached a speed of 25 times the speed of sound by the time the engines cut off.15, Missile Defense Project, "Titan II," Missile Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, March 22, 2017, last modified June 15, 2018, Gemini Titan II Model Rocket: The missile was 31.3 m long and 3.05 m wide. At this point, BSD suspended further flights. Most of the debris from the missile fell offshore or on the beach, and the second stage impacted the water mostly intact, although the oxidizer tank had been ruptured by flying debris from first stage destruction. Their hypergolic nature made them dangerous to handle; a leak could (and did) lead to explosions, and the fuel was highly toxic. One of the rockets from this family was the Titan III, which was a modified Titan II with optional solid rocket boosters. A decommissioned Titan II missile complex is being sold for $395,000 on the real estate site Zillow. After the two accidents in 1978 and 1980, respectively, deactivation of the Titan II ICBM system finally began in July 1982. The oxidizer tank is a welded structure consisting of a forward dome, tank barrel, an aft dome and a feedline. The Titan II was in service from 1963 to 1987. Titan II. The oxidizer tank and fuel tank are welded structures consisting of forward and aft domes. Basing: Silo-based All rights reserved. Other portions of the message contained a launch time, which might be immediate or might be any time in the future. Standing 103 feet tall and weighing a colossal 330,000 pounds, it had a range of up to 9,300 miles away (3,000 miles greater than the Titan I). In Service: 1963-1987, The Titan II development program grew out of a 1959 upgrade program which considered adding an in-silo launch capability and improved first and second stage engines for the Titan I.1 In 1960, this upgrade program was officially spun off into the Titan II program and placed under the direction of the Titan I developer, the Martin Company.2, In order to increase the Titan’s range and payload capacity, a redesigned engine system was mounted on a larger fuselage. During development, the missile met the objectives set by the Air Force for use as an ICBM fairly early but ran into trouble meeting the criteria set by NASA for a manned space launch platform. Sign up … Navy crews launched a salvage effort to recover the reentry vehicle and the guidance system from the sea floor. The Titan II was a two-stage liquid-fuel rocket, using a hypergolic propellant combination of Aerozine 50 fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer. 0 2 0. The Autopilot attempted to keep the missile straight during first stage flight and sent commands to the IMU on the 2nd stage. Its inertial guidance system gave an accuracy of 900 meters CEP and was capable of making in-flight corrections without ground control input. N-14 (9 May), flown from LC-16 at the Cape, suffered another early second stage shutdown due to a leaking oxidizer line. Titan II rockets were later used in the mid-21st century, during World War III, as a type of nuclear missile. 61-2738/60-6817 resides in the silo at the Titan Missile Museum (ICBM Site 571-7), operated by the Pima Air & Space Museum at Green Valley, south of Tucson, Arizona, on Interstate-19.[39]. No. The former's primary aim was to develop a missile system, not a launch vehicle for Project Gemini, and they were only interested in technical improvements to the booster insofar as they had relevance to that program. Four of the 42 were saved and sent to museums (below). [7], The first Titan II launch, Missile N-2, was carried out on 16 March 1962 from LC-16 at Cape Canaveral and performed extremely well, flying 5,000 miles (8,000 km) downrange and depositing its reentry vehicle in the Ascension splash net. When spares for this system became hard to obtain, it was replaced by a more modern guidance system, the Delco Universal Space Guidance System (USGS). 61-2768 at the Stafford Museum, Oklahoma. Most of the decommissioned Titan II ICBMs were refurbished and used for Air Force space launch vehicles, with a perfect launch success record. This reduced time to launch and permitted it to be launched from its silo. This page is dedicated to the Titan II ICBM launch crews and maintenance support teams, that kept the Titan II ICBM an important and vital addition to the strategic defense of this country during the cold war. At the Titan Missile Museum, near Tucson, Arizona, visitors journey through time to stand on the front line of the Cold War. Length: 31.3 m Unfortunately, a fire broke out in the thrust section soon after liftoff, leading to loss of control during ascent. No. By the mid-1980s, with the stock of refurbished Atlas E/F missiles finally starting to run out, the Air Force decided to reuse decommissioned Titan IIs for space launches. Ironically, the two largest oxidizer spills took place 14 years apart at the same site, Launch Complex 533-7, 381st SMW, McConnell AFB, Kansas. The computer system compensated by running the engine for an additional 111 seconds, when propellant depletion occurred. Titan II was originally designed and used as an ICBM, but was later adapted as a medium-lift space launch vehicle to carry payloads to Earth orbit for the United States Air Force (USAF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Titan II replaced the Titan I in 1965, It was much larger than its predecessor (approximately 30 metres [100 feet] long) and could be launched directly from its silo. Status: Obsolete The Titan II used the LR-87-5 engine, a modified version of the LR-87, that used a hypergolic propellant combination of nitrogen tetroxide for its oxidizer and Aerozine 50 (a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and UDMH) instead of the liquid oxygen and RP-1 propellant of the Titan I. [18] The trouble appeared to be with Aerojet, and a visit of MSC officials to their Sacramento, California, plant in July revealed a number of extremely careless handling and manufacturing processes. Twelve Gemini missions were flown, ten of which were manned, in preparation for the Apollo space program. 61-2756, was given to the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in the 1970s. The problem was traced to a bit of cleaning alcohol carelessly left in the engine. [10], Vehicle N-13 was launched 13 days later and carried no standpipes, but it did have increased pressure in the first stage propellant tanks, which did cut down on vibration. [35], A single Titan II complex belonging to the former strategic missile wing at Davis–Monthan Air Force Base escaped destruction after decommissioning and is open to the public as the Titan Missile Museum at Sahuarita, Arizona. Of the 13 launches, there was one failure, when a launch of a Landsat satellite in 1993 ended in a useless orbit due to a malfunction of the satellite kick motor. One missile, B-108, AF Ser. The rocket was used for national defense and space exploration. USAF. BSD decided that 0.6 Gs was good enough despite NASA's goal of 0.25 Gs and they stubbornly declared that no more resources were to be expended on it. The Titan II was the largest ICBM ever deployed by the U.S. Air Force. Then the silo doors would slide open, giving off a "SILO SOFT" alarm inside the control room. Inside was a plastic "cookie", with the five letters written on it. Launch Weight: 149,700 kg This code was entered on a separate system that opened a butterfly valve on one of the oxidizer lines on the missile engines. The 12.58-acre property is just a 20-minute drive from Tucson, in … On 16 February, Vehicle N-7 was launched from a silo at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California and malfunctioned almost immediately at liftoff. The Titan II was originally expected to be in service for only 5–7 years, but ended up lasting far longer than anyone expected in part because of its large size and throw weight. 21M-LGM25C-1  – via cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit} (Dash 1), The first Titan II guidance system was built by AC Spark Plug. Payload: Single warhead One person died in the accident. The interstage structure, oxidizer tank forward skirt, and inter-tank structure are all fabricated assemblies using riveted skin, stringers and frame. During the first week of April, a joint plan was drafted which would ensure that pogo was to be reduced to fit NASA's target and to make design improvements to both Titan stages. Stage I and Stage II vehicles each contain propellant and pressurization, rocket engine, hydraulic and electrical systems, and explosive components. Fortunately, the Titan's errant flight came to an end after flipping almost completely upside-down which caused the second stage to separate from the stack. Titan II(23)G rocket in Vandenberg (Sept. 5, 1988) 6. The rocket first flew on 8 April 1964. Finally, B-34 Stage 2 was delivered from Norton Air Force Base to Martin Marietta on 28 April 1986, but was not modified to a G, nor was it listed as arriving or being destroyed at the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group at Davis–Monthan Air Force Base; it is therefore unaccounted for within the open source public domain. This was due to a longitudinal oscillation issue dubbed the “pogo effect” which caused increased gravitational effects on the missile. [14][15], Meanwhile, the Titan II development program ran into difficulties during the first half of 1963. The Titan II was an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile, designed to carry a 9-megaton nuclear warhead to the other side of the world. Missile Threat is a product of the Missile Defense Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Following the decommissioning of the Titan II as an ICBM, the remaining missiles were converted into space-launch vehicles for satellites and remained in that role until the final Titan II was launched in 2003.13, The Titan II was the largest and heaviest missile ever built by the United States. This reduced time to launch and permitted it to be launched from its silo. The missile lifted with a continuous uncontrolled roll, and at about T+15 seconds, when the pitch and roll program would normally begin, it began a sudden sharp downward pitch. Stage I contained three gyros and the Autopilot. [citation needed], On 24 August 1978, SSgt Robert Thomas was killed at a site outside Rock, Kansas when a missile in its silo leaked propellant. [3], The Stage II airframe consists of a transition section, oxidizer tank, inter-tank structure, fuel tank and aft skirt. B-14/20 AF Ser. Meanwhile, combustion instability was still an issue and was confirmed by Aerojet static-firing tests which showed that the LR91 Liquid-propellant engine had difficulty attaining smooth burning after the shock of startup. However, it allowed for a much simpler and more trouble-free engine system than on cryogenic propellant boosters. Range: 15,000 km The message also contained a six-letter code that unlocked the missile. However, unlike its predecessor, the Titan II didn’t need to be raised to ground level on an elevator prior to launch, and was the first ICBM capable of launching from inside a silo.6 Additionally, the silo complexes were located 13 to 19 kilometers apart.7 These factors increased the missile’s survivability in the event of a first-strike scenario and allowed it to launch within 60 seconds of receiving a launch order. Most of the Titan rockets were the Titan II ICBM and their civilian derivatives for NASA. GLV-5, AF Ser. Enjoy this highly detailed replica of the Titan II (LGM-25C) ICBM. The Autopilot attempted to keep the missile straight during first stage flight and sent commands to the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the 2nd stage. No. This rocket was a modified ICBM, or intercontinental ballistic missile. Forty-two B-series missiles remained, 41 full and one first stage at Norton Air Force Base, and the second stage at Martin. Eighteen of the missiles were on 24-hour continuous alert surrounding Davis–Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson, Arizona. Many of these flights took place at Cape Canaveral due to the Titan II’s selection for usage in NASA’s Gemini program.4, The Titan II entered active service with the U.S. Air Force in 1963.5, Much like its predecessor, the Titan II was primarily valued for its quick counter-strike capability. They proposed adding more standpipes to the first stage and using baffled injectors in the second stage. The 54 deployed Titan IIs formed the backbone of America's strategic deterrent force until the LGM-30 Minuteman ICBM was deployed en masse during the early to mid-1960s. The W-53 had a yield of 9 megatons. Meanwhile, Martin–Marietta and Aerojet both argued that most of the major development problems with the booster had been solved and it would only take a little more work to man-rate it. © 2021 by the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Aside from pogo oscillation (the nickname NASA engineers invented for the Titan's vibration problem since it was thought to resemble the action of a pogo stick),[8] the Titan II was experiencing other teething problems that were expected of a new launch vehicle. A large number of civilian contractors were evacuated from the Command and Control Bunker. The third launch, Missile N-6 on 11 July, was completely successful. Titan II carried the largest single warhead of any American ICBM.[1]. Since the ICBM program came first, pogo suppression had to be shelved. Developed as an intercontinental ballistic missile, the Titan II also served as a launch vehicle for the Gemini manned spacecraft missions and … All models made by me and most textures from quixel. The codes were compared to each other and if they matched, both operators proceeded to a red safe containing the missile launch documents. The program carried the conditions that the ICBM program retained first priority and was not to be delayed by Gemini, and that General McCoy would have final say on all matters. Spirers, David N., “On Alert An Operational History of the United States Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program, 1945-2011,” Air Force Space Command, United States Air Force, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2012, Stumpf, David K., Titan II, The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 2000. The LGM-25C Titan II was the last liquid-fueled intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) built by the United States in order to deter the Soviet Union. During the Black Mesa Incident several scientists at the facility prepare to launch a Satellite Delivery Rocket in an attempt to close the dimensional rift, only to be stopped by HECU personnel, leaving Gordon Freeman to complete the task himself. The Titan II used LR-87-5 engines, a modified version of the LR-87, that relied on a hypergolic combination of nitrogen tetroxide and Aerozine 50 (a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and UDMH) for its oxidizer and fuel instead of the liquid oxygen and RP-1combination used in the Titan I. This would have made this warhead one of the most powerful ever, with almost double the power-to-weight ratio of the B41 nuclear bomb. Originated From: United States Because the computer had not sent a manual cutoff command, reentry vehicle separation and vernier solo phase did not occur. Titan II missiles were designed to be launched from underground missile silos that were hardened against nuclear attack. Titan II - military version of the rocket. Flying atop a highly modified Titan II ICBM, NASA’s Gemini Manned Spaceflight program achieved 100 percent mission success . While BSD tried to come up with a way to help NASA out, they finally decided that it was not worth the time, resources, and risk of trying to cut down further on pogo and that the ICBM program ultimately came first. Forty-nine were launched for testing at Vandenberg Air Force Base from 1964 to 1976. The Titan II GLV (Gemini Launch Vehicle), was developed to launch Gemini spacecraft. 8-86): Air Force Facility Site 8 (571-7)", "Martin Marietta SM-68B/LGM-25C Titan II. The Air Force successfully launched the first Titan 23G space launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base 5 September 1988. The Titan II was a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the U.S. Air Force. 2. The missile guidance computer (MGC) was the IBM ASC-15. The Titan II ICBM was the successor to the Titan I, with double the payload. The Martin company received a contract for the new missile, designated SM-68B Titan II, in June 1960. 61-2738/60-6817 in the silo at the. When that time was reached, the two operators inserted keys into their respective control panels and turned them to launch. [12], Despite the Air Force's lack of interest in human-rating the Titan II, General Bernard Adolph Schriever assured that any problems with the booster would be fixed. The inadvertent rolling motion of the vehicle may have also prevented a worse disaster as it added stability and prevented it from colliding with the silo walls as it ascended. The ISDS (Inadvertent Separation Destruct System) then activated and blew up the first stage. [13], A closed-door meeting of NASA and Air Force officials led to the former arguing that without any definitive answer to the pogo and combustion instability problems, the Titan could not safely fly human passengers. All were launched from the then-Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in 1964–66. The last Titan II missile, located at Silo 373-8 near Judsonia, Arkansas, was deactivated on 5 May 1987. The Titan I and II liquid rocket engines powered the nation’s ICBMs for more than 30 years, helping to bring an end to the Cold War Titan II/Gemini, Aerojet’s first engines for manned spaceflight, formalized the “mission success” concept requiring the highest standards for quality assurance and reliability The two missile operators would record the code in a notebook. However, the United States’ nuclear doctrine planned on using the Titan IIs and other ICBMs as a counter-value deterrent which targeted large Soviet military bases and civilian population centers.8, While in service, there were a number of fatal accidents involving the missile. The blast completely destroyed the silo and sent the 750-ton silo door flying 200 meters and 20-ton fragments from the flame deflectors over 500 meters from the silo. There was only one problem: a high rate of longitudinal vibrations during first stage burn. The first stage, Stage I, is the booster, Stage II … This was followed by a launch from VAFB on 27 April when Missile N-8 flew successfully. Hypergolic fueled rocket nozzles of the Titan II rocket. [18], On the other hand, only Missile N-11 suffered a malfunction due to pogo and the combustion instability issue had occurred in static firings, but not any actual flights. Round of applause for our sponsors Titan II Rocket by hypelights. Unlike refurbished Atlas missiles, which were completely torn down and rebuilt from the ground up, the Titan 23G had relatively few changes aside from replacing the warhead interface and adding range safety and telemetry packages. The second stage was manually destroyed by the Range Safety officer shortly thereafter. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [11], The tenth Titan II flight (Vehicle N-15) took place on 10 January, the only nighttime Titan II test. This site established July 6, 1995. 66-4319 (23G-10 the spare for the 23G program), went to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in McMinnville, Oregon. INTRODUCING TITAN II. The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile. Brig. The second stage then separated and began its burn, but due to the improper speed and attitude at separation, the guidance system malfunctioned and caused an unstable flight trajectory. B-104 AF Ser. Class: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) [33] Author Eric Schlosser published a book centered on the accident, Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety, in September 2013. Building 945 held 30 missiles, while Building 942 held 11 plus a single stage 1. [26] The missile survived and was undamaged. All Titan 23G missions were launched from Space Launch Complex 4 West (SLC-4W) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, under the operational command of the 6595th Aerospace Test Group and its follow-on organizations of the 4th Space Launch Squadron and 2nd Space Launch Squadron. Next Group of Photos The Martin Marietta Astronautics Group was awarded a contract in January 1986 to refurbish, integrate, and launch fourteen Titan II ICBMs for government space launch requirements. 21M-HGM25A-1-1, “Technical Manual, Operation and Organizational Maintenance USAF Model HGM-25A Missile Weapon System, This Template lists historical, current, and future space rockets that at least once attempted (but not necessarily succeeded in) an orbital launch or that are planned to attempt such a launch in the future, * - Japanese projects using US rockets or stages, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 05:01. It is a common misconception that the Titan IIs were decommissioned because of a weapons reduction treaty, but in fact, they were simply aging victims of a weapons modernization program. Liftoff of Titan II rocket with Gemini 6A from Pad 19 (Dec. 15, 1965) 3. Warhead: 9.0 mT Nuclear The Titan II space launch vehicle is a two-stage liquid fueled booster, designed to provide a small-to-medium weight class capability. Sutton, George P., “History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, United States Air Force, “T.O. All Gemini flights were launched from Launch Complex 19 (LC-19) at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida. The buildings also held extra stage engines and the interstages. It became known as the Titan I, the nation's first two-stage ICBM and first underground silo-based ICBM. Propulsion: Two-stage, liquid propellant This was the same missile that had been in the silo during the deadly fire at site 373-4, refurbished and relocated after the incident. Finally, the supports that held the missile in place inside the silo would be released using pyrotechnic bolts, allowing the missile to lift off. [6], The Department of Defense predicted that a Titan II missile could eventually carry a warhead with a 35 megaton yield, based on projected improvements. Leadership within the USAF and SAC were reluctant to retire the Titan II because while it made up only a small fraction of the total number of missiles on standby, it represented significant portion of the total megatonnage that was deployed by Air Force ICBMs.

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